Most water requires some type of treatment before use, even water from deep wells or springs, to reduce in waterborne disease, especially among vulnerable populations, by promoting safe household water treatment and safe storage as a key component of water, sanitation and hygiene programmes. The main objective of water treatment is to ensure that the water consumed will not produce disease. The most important contaminants to remove from the water are bacteria, viruses, helminths and protozoa. Water treatment is a process, with all three steps recommended for optimal results; sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Find organizations involved in water treatment and sanitation here.
Water treatment is a process involving different types of operations physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological the aim of which is to eliminate and, or reduce contamination or non-desirable characteristics of water.
The major unit processing steps include chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection There are chemicals added to the water as it enters the various treatment processes.
Community Water Treatment
Coagulation and flocculation - Coagulation and flocculation are two separate processes, used in succession, to overcome the forces stabilising the suspended particles. While coagulation neutralises the charges on the particles, flocculation enables them to bind together, making them bigger, so that they can be more easily separated from the liquid.
Sedimentation - Sedimentation is a common way of treating water. It is a process that removes solids that float and settle in the water. The process relies on the use of sedimentation tanks that remove larger solids. Subsequent treatment processes may be used after sedimentation.
Filtration - Using filtration in water treatment, solid particles are entirely removed from the water. This can be from groundwater, surface water or even pre-treated wastewater. These processes in water treatment have a clear objective: to provide the correct quality of water for the specific industrial application.
Disinfection - Disinfection is a physical or chemical process in which pathogenic microorganisms are deactivated or killed. Examples of chemical disinfectants are chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.