Mining processing & refining businesses in Zambia

Refinement is the removal of undesirable minerals and separate the desired elements
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Chibuluma Mines Plc
Mining processing and refining
Chibuluma Mine extracts its copper ore from its underground mine, then crushed, ground into powder and processed into concentrate. The company provides the copper mining and processing industry with high quality copper concentrates which can then be processed into refined copper.
First Quantum Minerals Ltd
Mining processing and refining
First Quantum mines sulphide ore and oxide ore. Sulphide ore is treated via crushing, milling and flotation to produce copper in concentrate. The sulphide milling circuit maintains the production of finished copper as oxide ore is depleted and sulphide ore grades begin to fall as the mining horizon deepens.
Barrick Lumwana Mining Company Ltd (LMC)
Mining processing and refining
The Malundwe and Chimiwungo deposits are mined sequentially by open-pit methods. Apart from copper, Lumwana Mining also produces cobalt, gold, and uranium. Lumwana ore, which is predominantly sulfide, is treated through a conventional sulfide flotation plant, producing copper concentrate for smelting.

Mining processing & refining

Refinement is the removal of undesirable minerals and separate the desired elements

The most common types of ore, copper oxide and copper sulfide, undergo two different processes, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, respectively, due to the different chemistries of the ore. Copper oxides are more abundant near the surface, but are considered low-grade ore, with a lower concentration of copper.

In metallurgy, refining consists of purifying an impure metal. It is to be distinguished from other processes such as smelting and calcining in that those two involve a chemical change to the raw material, whereas in refining, the final material is usually identical chemically to the original one, only it is purer.

Open-pit, underwater, and underground mining. These are the three main methods of mining we use to extract our products from the ground.

Mining operations and refining ores for the manufacturing process will result in environmental issues and impacts; these include high energy use, physical disturbance of the landscape and pollution from toxic emissions, which may affect land, water and air.

This usually involves removing any unwanted impurities and further processing to increase the concentration of the economic mineral. Metallic minerals may be smelted or refined to produce metal close to the mine, or the concentrate may be transported to another site for further processing.

Mineral processing can involve four general types of unit operation: comminution – particle size reduction; sizing – separation of particle sizes by screening or classification; concentration by taking advantage of physical and surface chemical properties; and dewatering – solid/liquid separation.

Pyrometallurgy, extraction and purification of metals by processes involving the application of heat. The most important operations are roasting, smelting, and refining. Roasting, or heating in air without fusion, transforms sulphide ores into oxides, the sulphur escaping as sulphur dioxide, a gas.