Governance as a developments sector refers to processes of governing, undertaken by the government, through laws, norms, power and relate to processes and decisions that seek to define actions grant power and verify the performance of the government. The organizations that work to develop and influence institutions to promote good governance are listed here. Good governance is normative accounts of how public institutions ought to conduct public affairs and manage public resources. These normative accounts are often justified on the grounds that they are thought to be conducive to economic ends, such as the eradication of poverty and successful economic development.
The concept of "governance" is not new. However, it means different things to different people, therefore we have to get our focus right. The actual meaning of the concept depends on the level of governance we are talking about, the goals to be achieved and the approach being followed.
Democratic governance - ensures the participation of citizens in the process of policymaking and its implementation. Participation can be through the election, referendum, or local self-governance, protest, etc
Global Governance - one of the most relevant types of governance. The term ‘Global Governance’ was first used by Rosenau. He argues that “Global governance is conceived to include systems of rule at all levels of the human activity-from the family to the international organization- in which the pursuit of goals through the exercise of the control has transnational repercussions”.
Corporate governance - Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and controlled. Boards of directors are responsible for the governance of their companies. The shareholders’ role in governance is to appoint the directors and the auditors and to satisfy themselves that an appropriate governance structure is in place.
The purpose of corporate governance is to facilitate effective, entrepreneurial and prudent management that can deliver the long-term success of the company.
Good governance - This is the ideal concept or normative concept. This concept is born when ethics, values are included in the discussion of governance. Now the question is when will we call any governance good governance?
When governance is characterised by participation, rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, consensus-oriented, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, accountability then we call it good governance.
Environmental governance - Provides explanations of ways that can be implemented in the development of international environmental regulations, development of environmental sciences and information, and sustainable development and implementation policies in line with national policy.
It controls the management of the environment and natural resources for proper utilisation of the resources and securing sustainable development.